NIOS Political Science 317 Solved Paper’ April 2014, NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Papers

NIOS Political Science 317 Solved Paper’ April 2014

NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Papers


1. What is the scope of Political Science?                       2

Ans. The scope of political science is vast and experts have divided the field of political science into five sub-disciplines that are political theory, public administration, comparative politics, international relations, and public law. It needs to be noted that these sub-disciplines cover the entire gamut of the modern political economy and provide the basis for the study and understanding of how the global political economy works.

2. Mention any two elements of nationality.                     2

Ans. Two elements of nationality are

a) Common Geography.

b) Common Race.

3. What is meant by the concept of Sarvodaya?                  2

Ans. Sarvodaya, as Gandhiji had visualised, is the greatest good of all the members of the society. It is the welfare of all. It is the good of the individual together with the good of all the individuals, i.e., the good of each with the good of all.

4. What is the significance of the Preamble to the Constitution of India?                     2

Ans. The Preamble is like an introduction or preface of a book. It is not a part of the contents but it explains the purposes and objectives with which the document has been written. So is the case with the ‘Preamble’ to the Indian Constitution.

5. What is the composition of the Electoral College which elects the President of India?             2

Ans. The elected member of Parliament one members of the Electoral College for Presidential election. As such, they participate in the election of the President of India. They elect the Vice-President. The Lok Sabha elects its Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Rajya Sabha elects it Deputy Chairman.

6. What is public interest litigation (PIL)?                   2

Ans. Public interest litigation (PIL):- It means that even people, who are not directly involved in the case, may bring to the notice of the Court matters of public interest. It is the privilege of the Court to entertain the application for public interest litigation (PIL). The concept of PIL was introduced by Justice P.N. Bhagwati.

7. What is the composition of the Election Commission of India?                             2

Ans. Composition:- The Election Commission of the Chief Election Commissioner and such other Election commissioners as may be decided by the President from time to time.

8. Mention any two environmental problems.                                  2

Ans. Two environmental problems are

1. Land Air and Water:- Pollution of land water has affected plants, animals and human beings. The quality of soil is deteriorating resulting in the loss of agricultural land. The loss is estimated to be about five to seven million hectares of land each year.

2. Population Growth:- Population growth means more people to eat and breath, and putting an excessive pressure on land and forest, and ultimately disturbing the ecological balance. The growing population is not only a problem for the natural environment, it is a problem for many other aspect of environment, say, for example social, economic, political etc.

9. Mention any two principles of Panchsheel.                   2

Ans. Panchsheel, or the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, were first formally iterated in the Agreement on Trade and Intercourse between the Tibet region of China and India signed on April 29, 1954, which stated, in its preamble, that the two Governments “have resolved to enter into the present Agreement based on the following principles:- (a) Respect each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, (b) Mutual non-aggression

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NIOS Secondary and Senior Secondary Solved Question Papers

10. Explain the main features of Indian Federal System.                    5

Ans. The main features of Indian Federal System are:-

1. Written Constitution:- The most important feature of a federation is that its constitution should be a written one, so that both the Union Government as well as the State can refer to that as and when needed.

2. Rigid Constitution:- The procedure of amending the Constitution in a federal system is normally rigid. Indian Constitution provides that some amendments require a special majority.

3. Division of Powers:- In our Constitution, there is a clear division of powers, so that the States and the Centre are required to enact and legislate within their sphere of activity and none violates its limits and tries to encroach upon the functions o the other.

4. Supremacy of the Judiciary:- Another very important feature of a federation is an independent judiciary to interpret the Constitution and to maintain its sanctity. The Supreme Court of India has the original jurisdiction to settle disputes between the Union and the States.

11. What is the meaning and importance of judicial review?                      5

Ans. Judicial Review:- It is a process through which judiciary examines whether a law enacted by a legislature or an action of the executive is in accordance with the Constitution or not. Judicial Review does not mean that every law passed by the legislature is taken up by the Supreme Court for review. It only means that the Court will review the law as and when it gets an opportunity.

Importance of judicial review:– Because the power of judicial review can declare that laws and actions of local, state, or national government are invalid if they conflict with the Constitution. It also gives courts the power to declare an action of the executive or legislative branch to be unconstitutional.

12. Distinguish between national and regional political parties. Mention the names of any two regional parties.                   5

Ans. India has two types of political parties- national parties and regional parties. National parties are those which generally have influence all over the country. It is not necessary that a national party will have equal strength in all the states, it varies from state to state. A party is recognised as a national party by the Election Commission on the basis of a formula. The political party which has secure not less than four percent of the total valid votes in the previous general elections at least in four states, is given the status of a national party.

However, there are other parties in India, which do not enjoy national influence. Their activities and influence are restricted to particular states or regions. Sometimes these parties are formed to voice demands of a specific region. These parties are neither weak nor short-lived. Sometimes they prove to be very powerful in their respective regions. These are known as regional parties.

Major regional parties are AIADMK and DMK in Tamil Nadu, Telugu Desam in Andhra Pradesh, Akali Dal in Punjab, national Conference in Jammu and Kashmir, and Asom Gana Parishad in Assam.

13. Identify the shortcomings of India’s electoral system.                            5

Ans. Shortcomings of India’s electoral system:

1. Money Power:- The role of unaccounted money in elections has become a serious problem. The political parties collect funds from companies and business houses, and then use this money to influence the voter to vote in their favour. The business contributions are mostly in cash and are not unaccounted.

2. Muscle Power:- Earlier the criminal used to support the candidates by intimidating the voter at a gunpoint to vote according to their direction. Now they themselves have come out openly by contesting the elections leading to criminalisation of politics. As a result violence during elections has also increased.

3. Caste and Religion:- Generally the candidates are given tickets by the political parties on the consideration whether the candidate can muster the support of numerically larger castes and communities and possesses enough resources. Even the electorates vote on the caste and communal lines.

4. Misuse of government machinery:- All the political parties do not have equal opportunity in respect of access to resources. The party in power is always in advantageous position then the opposition parties. There is widespread allegation that the party in power accomplishes misuse of government machinery.

14. Write a short note on National Human Rights Commission.                         5

Ans. The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 was enacted in India to provide for the constitution of a National Human Rights Commission, State Human Rights Commissions in States for better protection of human  rights and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. ‘Human rights’ are defined in Section 2 (1) (d) of the Act to mean the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India. The functions of the Commission are enumerated in Section 12 which include a wide area to enable the Commission not only to enquire into the violations or negligence in prevention of violation of human rights but also to promote the human rights culture and perform any function necessary for the promotion of human rights.

Ever since its constitution in 1993, the National Human Rights Commission has been discharging a complementary to that of the Supreme Court of India by performing those tasks which by their very nature the NHRC can perform better e.g. monitoring any situation or functioning of an institution. The dependence between these institutions has considerably improved the mechanism for the protection of human rights in the country, which is primarily a state responsibility.

15. Comment on Tamil separatism. What are the areas of cooperation between India and Sri Lanka?5

Ans. Tamil Separatism:- The ethic problem between Tamils and Sinhalese had a long history. It assumed serious proportions in 1983. As the gulf between the communities developed, militancy, separatist organisations became active. Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) demanded separate homeland for Tamils in 1988 – Tamil Eelam. A reign of terror was unleashed against the agitating Tamils in 1983. During 1983-86, about 2 lakh Tamils were rendered homeless.

Areas of Mutual Cooperation:- Systematic efforts at strengthening economic ties have been taken by India and Sri Lanka since the 1990s, especially after the withdrawal of Indian troops. In 1988, the two countries set up an Indo Sri Lankan Foundation for increasing bilateral exchanges in various fields. They have agreed on a free trade area to facilitate trade, which has gone up greatly. India encouraged Sri Lanka to invite the peace process between the Tamils and the Sinhalese. In 1998 Sri Lanka invited Norway to work out a peaceful solution to the ethnic problem.

16. Describe the major concerns of India’s foreign policy in the post-Cold War period.            5

Ans. The end of cold war in 1989 has brought about significant changes in the international scene and hence new policy problems for the various states in the developing world including India. The new situation is made by greater uncertainty and complexity.

a) For India, disintegration of the Soviet Union has meant uncertainty on several aspects viz., supply of weapons system, supply of spare parts, diplomatic support on Kashmir and other politico-strategic issues in and outside the United Nations and as a counter weight to US in South Asia.

b) Militancy in Kashmir has emerged as the for most challenge to our foreign policy. Pakistan and the Western countries blamed India for violating human rights and denial or rights to self determination. Gradually, India brought the situation under control.

c) Because of the Kashmir dispute, India’s relations with Pakistan sharply deteriorated. India accused Pakistan of fanning trouble through cross border terrorism in Kashmir and other parts of our country. India conducted nuclear weapon tests in 1998, followed by  Pakistan’s tests. Pakistan resorted to further mischief by secretly sending its soldiers into Kargil in order to cut off the Kashmir valley from the rest of India.

d) Spread of terrorism to corners beyond Kashmir is a challenge as well as opportunity for our foreign policy now a days. India is interested in forging anti-terrorism coalition with as many countries as possible.

17. What is Marxism? Explain its main theoretical propositions.                       8

Ans. Marxism is the political philosophy of the working class as liberalism is the political philosophy of the capitalist class. It is a theory of social change: why social changes take place and how do these changes come into effect? The social changes take place because of the material factors and through a method called ‘dialectical materialistic’ method. Marxism is based on certain assumptions/postulates. These are:

1. Nothing happens in the world on its own; there is always a cause-effect relationship in what we see around. The relations of production (i.e., material relations among the people), as the basis of society, provide the cause while the productive forces constitute the effect.

2. The real development is always the material development (i.e., the economic development). The progressive development of productive forces indicates the progressive level of development.

3. The material (i.e. economic) factor is the dominant factor in both individual life and social life.

4. Human being is born at a particular stage of social/material development, i.e., born in a social setting which exists independent of him. But being an active being, human being makes his own social setting. Marx had said, human beings are born in history but they make history.

5. Social classes, especially the opposing classes, through their struggle and following the process of revolution, move in the forward direction. That is why the Marxists say that every subsequent society is better than the preceding society.


Highlight the features of liberalism.

Ans. We may identity certain characteristics of liberalism. These characteristic/features are:

1. Individual Liberty:- Liberalism is essentially an ideology of liberty. Its love for individual liberty is unquestionable. It has become liberalism.

2. Individual-centred theory:- Liberalism begins and ends with individual. For liberals, individual is the centre of all activities, the focal point, individual is the end while all other associations, including the state, are the means, which exist for the individual.

3. Capitalistic Economy:- Liberalism advocates free-market economy, i.e., the capitalistic mode of economy. It believes in private property system, regarding property rights as sacrosanct, maximum profit as the only motive, capitalistic mode of production and distribution as the only essence, the market forces as the controlling means of economy.

4. Limited State:- Liberalism advocates the concept of limited state. The liberals view the state as a means for attaining the good of the individual. The oppose every type of totalitarian state.

5. Opposed to Traditions/Superstitions:- As liberalism rose as a reaction against traditions/superstitions, it is, by its nature, opposed to all reactionary measures. Liberalism, emerging from Renaissance and Reformation, stood, and actually stands, for reason and rationalism.

6. Democracy:- Liberalism is an exponent of democratic government. It seeks to establish a government of the people, by the people and for the people, a government that functions according to the Constitution and constitutionalism, a government that upholds the rule of law, a government that secures rights and liberties of the people.

7. Welfareism:- Liberalism is closely associated with Welfareism. Welfareism, as a state activity, is the idea that state works for the welfare of the people. The liberal concept of state activity is one where the state serves the people. In other words, the welfare state is a ‘social service’ state.

18. Analyze the six fundamental freedoms mentioned in the Right to Freedom.            8

Ans. The six fundamental freedoms mentioned in the Right to Freedom

1) Freedom of speech and expression:- Every person has freedom of speech and expression. However, the state can inflict a restriction on this freedom in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of the country, for the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, in relation to the contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offense.

2) Freedom to assemble:- Every person has the freedom to assemble peacefully without arms. However, the State can leave restrictions in the interest of public order and the sovereignty and integrity of the country.

3) Freedom to form associations or unions or co-operative societies:- The State can enforce restrictions  on such freedom in the interest of public order, morality and the sovereignty and integrity of the country.

4) Freedom to move freely:- An Indian citizen has the freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India. But the government can impose restrictions on this right only in the interest of the general public.

5) Freedom to reside and settle:-Citizens of India have the freedom to reside anywhere in the country. However, in the interest of the general public or for the protection of the scheduled tribes the State may impose certain restrictions.

6) Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any business, occupation or trade:- Every person can carry any business or practice any profession provided it is not dangerous or immoral. Also, professional or technical qualifications must be acquired before practicing any profession or carrying on any trade.


Assess the constitutional provisions regarding national emergency. What are the effects of national emergency?

Ans. The Constitution of India has provided for imposition of emergency caused by war, external aggression or internal rebellion. This is described as the National Emergency. This type  of emergency can be declared by the President of India if he is satisfied that the situation is every grave and the security of India or any part thereof is threatened or is likely to be threatened either (i) by war or external aggression or (ii) by armed rebellion within the country. The President can issue such a proclamation even on the ground of threat of war or aggression. According to the 44th Amendment of the Constitution, the President can declare such an emergency only if the Cabinet recommends in writing to do so. The declaration of National Emergency has far-reaching effects both on the rights of individuals and the autonomy of the states in the following manner:

(a) The most significant effect is that the federal form of the Constitution changes into unitary. The authority of the Centre increases and the Parliament assumes the power to make laws for the entire country or any part thereof, even in respect of subjects mentioned in the State List.

(b) The President of India can issue directions to the states as to the manner in which the executive power of the states to be exercised.

(c) During this period, the Lok Sabha can extend its tenure by a period of one year at a time. But the same cannot be extended beyond six months after the proclamation ceases to operate. The tenure of State Assemblies can also be extended in the same manner.

(d) During emergency, the President is empowered to modify the provisions regarding distribution of revenues between the Union and the States.

(e) According to the 44th Amendment, Freedoms listed in Article 19 can be suspended only in case of proclamation on the ground of war or external aggression.

19. Explain the role and functions of the Prime Minister of India.                       8

Ans. The Prime Minister is the most important and powerful functionary of the Union Government. The Prime Mister being the head of the Council of Ministers, selects the Ministers to be sworn in by the President. The Ministers in fact are chosen by the Prime Minister and remain Ministers as long as they enjoy the confidence of the Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister presides over the meetings of the Cabinet and conducts its proceedings. As head of the Cabinet, he/she largely influences the decisions of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister co-ordinates the working of various ministers. The President resolves disagreement if any amongst different Ministers. Prime Minister is the link between the President and the Cabinet. The decisions of the Cabinet are conveyed to the President by the Prime Minister. It is he who keeps the President informed of all the policies and decisions of the Government.

The Prime Minister is the “principal spokesman” and defender of the policies of the Government in the Parliament. When any Minister is unable to defend his/her actions properly, the Prime Minister comes to the help of that Minister both inside and outside the Parliament. The Prime Minister is the leader of the nation. The nation looks to his/her for guidance. At the time of general elections, it is the Prime Minister who seeks mandate of the people. The President represents the country in the world arena, by participating in the international meetings such as NAM, SAARC and United Nations. All international agreements and treaties with other countries are concluded with the consent of the Prime Minister.


Explain the composition of the Parliament of India. Briefly describe the functions of the Lok Sabha.

Ans. Composition of the Parliament:- The Parliament has two Houses- Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. Rajya Sabha is upper House and represents the States of India while the Lok Sabha is owner House. It is also called popular House because it represents the people of India. The President is an integral part of the Parliament, the President has been assigned certain powers and functions. The Lok Sabha which is the more representative chamber of the Parliament performs a number of useful functions. These functions are described below:

1 .Legislative Function:- The Parliament makes laws on all subjects listed in the Union List. It can also makes laws on subjects listed under the Concurrent List. In case there is any conflict or overlapping in the provisions existing in the Union and State enactment, the Union law prevails. In cases when an emergency has been declared, the Union Parliament can also make laws on subjects that fall within the State List.

2. Financial Function:-  Union Parliament has exclusive powers to provide ways and means through which revenue has to be raised for public services. To that end it imposes taxes and also ensures that the money sanctioned for expenditure to various departments of the government has been spent for the authorized purposes.

3.The Electoral Function:- The elected member of Parliament one members of the Electoral College for Presidential election. As such, they participate in the election of the President of India. They elect the Vice- President. The Lok Sabha elects its Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Rajya Sabha elects its Deputy Chairman.

4. Power of Removal:- Certain high functionaries may  be removed from office on the initiative of the Parliament. The President of India may be removed through the process of impeachment. The judges of Supreme Court and of High Courts can be removed by an order of the President, which may be issued only if a resolution of their removal is passed by both Houses of Parliament by special majority.

5. Functions Regarding the Amendment of the Constitution:- Most of the parts of the Constitution can be amended by the Parliament by special majority. But certain provisions only be amended by the Parliament with the approval of States. However India being a federal State, the amending power of the Parliament is highly limited. The Supreme Court has ruled that the Parliament cannot change the basic structure of the Constitution.

20. Explain the role of caste in Indian politics.                        8

Ans. Caste began to play an important role after independence as its involvement in politics increased. The fact that it existed as easily identifiable social cluster of people made it an easy object of political mobilization by political parties in their quest for political support and votes. While the political parties sought to exploit caste for its own electoral purposes, caste groups by making politics their sphere of activity got a chance to assert their identity and bargain for benefits and position in society. Thus, caste and politics interaction has been a two-way process.

In politicizing the castes, the caste associations played a crucial role. Caste associations were quasi-voluntary associations in the sense that its membership was open only to the individuals of the caste community. These associations sere formed to secure economic benefits or educational openings or for more clearly political purpose of uniting to fight the hegemony of the upper castes. In either case, involvement in politics was considered necessary for securing the specific purpose for which they were formed. Thus, once formed on the basis of caste identity, caste associations went on to acquire non-caste functions.

In electoral politics the role of the caste in politics has become powerful. This can be seen at all levels of the political process of the country. Al political parties tend to give party ticket to candidates for contesting elections form amongst the numerically or otherwise dominant caste in every constituency. Major caste groups get representation in the council of ministers. Be it elections, political appointments or even formation of political parties, caste has been the major consideration.


Identify and explain the important measures taken by India to check environmental pollution.

Ans. Some Measures taken by Indian Government to Check Environmental Pollution

1) Environmental Courts: Special courts are being set up to ensure speedy justice of the poor against factories that pollute the Environment.

2) Environment Friendly Products: The government is setting stringent standards for all products in the market. Those, which meet these standards of production and performance will be given the label of excellence like the ISI mark.

3) Unloading Of Petrol: Refineries are being persuaded to make their petrol lead free. Indian petrol has the highest lead content, which creates major pollution through automobile.

4) Ban on Harmful Pesticides: Eight chemical pesticides, of which DDT, BHC, Adrian and Marathon are the main culprits have been isolated. There are now plans to replace them with safe bio pesticides.

5) National Waste Management Council: The main task is to concert 40 million tonnes of Flyash, that lie as a mountain near thermal power plants into bricks, city garbage into energy and sewage into fertilizer.

6) Public Liability Insurance: This makes it mandatory for all companies to take out a public liability insurance to be paid in 48 hours.

7)  Pollution By Motor Vehicles: Anti-pollution measures against motor vehicles are being strictly enforced. Vehicles not adhering to the standards prescribed are fined heavily and may even be asked to be off the road.

8) Hotel Near Sea Shore: Action has been taken against a large number of hotels which encroach beaches in flagrant violation of laws.



(World Order and the United Nations)

21. What was the bipolar world order?                      2

Ans. Bipolar can be defined as a system of World Order in which the majority of global economic, military and cultural influence is held between two states. The classic case of a bipolar world is that of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, which dominated the second half of the twentieth century.

22. What are the main objectives of the United Nations?                    5

Ans. The main objectives of the United Nations are

1) To maintain international peace and security.

2) To develop friendly relations among nations on the basis of equality and the principle of self-determination.

3) To foster World Wide cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.

4) To promote human rights and fundamental freedom for the people of the world.

5) To serve as a centre where various nations can coordinate their activities towards the attainment of the objectives of the United Nations.

6) To save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.

23.  Explain the composition, role and functions of the UN General Assembly.                 8

Ans. General Assembly is the central body. The principles of sovereign equality and universality are embodied in its composition. All members of the United Nations (presently191) are members of the General Assembly. Irrespective of size or strength, every member has one vote in the Assembly.

Functions of the United Nations General Assembly:-

The Assembly discusses problems brought to it, Makes recommendations on peace and security questions, Admits new members and adopts UN budget. On important matters, it adopts resolutions with the support of two-third majority. Procedural decisions require only a simple majority. The Assembly meets in regular session every year. It has convened 59 such sessions so far. The Assembly also meets, when need arises, in special sessions and emergency special. The General Assembly is sometimes called as the world parliament. It can discuss any matter. It discusses matters which include peace and security questions, environmental protection, economic development, problems of colonial administration, disarmament, refugees, population explosion, use of global commons like outer space and deep seaboard. It can only make recommendations.


Analyze the role of the United Nations in the promotion of Human Rights.

Ans. Promotion of Human Rights:- Promotion of human rights culture through World Wide human rights standards has been another major contribution of the United Nations. Nearly 80 declarations and conventions touching upon various facets of human right have been adopted by the UN in the past five decades.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was the first among the UN declarations. The day of its adoption 10 December 1948 is observed every year as the Human Rights day. The Declaration contains a broad range of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights that all people are entitled to, without any discrimination. Admittedly, the Universal Declaration, as any declaration, is not binding on governments. However, it gave inspiration to the drafting of two legally binding covenants, one on economic, social and cultural rights and the other on civil and political rights. Both these covenants became applicable to the signatory states from 1976 onwards. These two covenants, together with the universal declaration, are known as ‘the International Bill of Rights.’

The UN has adopted other declarations and covenants with the aim of stopping the practice of torture and racial discrimination or protecting vulnerable section like children, women and migrant workers.


(Administrative System in India)

24. What is the need of independent Public Service Commission?                          2

Ans. The constitution of an independent agency in the form of a public service commission for recruitment is one. Through this agency:

a) the executive branch has been divested of the power of making recruitment to the superior levels of civil services.

b) the agency thus created is an extra-departmental body such as a commission, which functions outside the normal machinery of government.

c) a special constitutional status is conferred on this agency to ensure autonomous functioning.

25. Explain the functions of District Collector.                           5

Ans. Role and Function of District Collector are:-

1) Revenue Function:- District Collector is the head of the revenue administration of the district. His foremost task is the assessment and collection of land revenue.

2) Maintenance of Law and Order:- In this capacity he is responsible for the maintenance of law and order in his district. Three elements are involved i.e. the police, the judiciary and the jails.

3) Co-ordinator of Different Departments/offices:- Formerly, the district collector used to be the coordinating agency in overall charge of every important official activity in the district. After independence, several departments of technical nature were setup.

4) Crisis Management:- During emergencies such as those caused by natural calamities, floods, famines, cyclones, etc. or manmade crises such as riots, fires, or external aggression, it is he who hold an umbrella over the district.

5) Development Functions:- He has become a pivotal figure in the implementation of development programmes. In many states, he is also designated as the District Development Officer. He is made responsible for both regulatory and development administration.

26. What is meant by bureaucracy? Examine the role of bureaucracy in development.           8

Ans. The term ‘Bureaucracy’ lacks a definition that is universally accepted. Bureaucracy is sometimes used in a disparaging manner to mean unimaginative, rigid and inefficient government administrators. It is associated with red-tapism, delay and wastefulness.

Role of bureaucracy in development:- Bureaucracy has become a universal phenomenon. It is a pre requisite of modernization of every society. Most developing countries are engaged in the process of nation building and bringing about rapid socio-economic development, i.e. providing social services such as health, education, infrastructure like roads, electricity, productive activities in agriculture, industry etc. the complex of such formidable activities connected with the development enterprise is essentially government’s responsibility. Here, public administration becomes the key agency of development. Bureaucracy can immensely contribute to development by serving as an adviser, as an inventor, and a decision-maker. It can vitalize administration by building up a social environment emphasizing responsibility by creating incentives, by encouraging healthy competent and progressive leadership and by delegating authority to lower levels for maximizing development.

Bureaucracy constitutes the apparatus and mechanism through which the state realizes its purposes. It has been rightly said that a country’s life is largely shaped by the quality of administration.


What is the importance of redressal of grievances in a democracy? Explain any two instruments of redressal of grievances.

Ans. In a developing country like ours, Government has to perform many functions. The citizens depend on the services provided by various government agencies. To levy rice, wheat and sugar from a ration shop, a citizen has to have a ration card issued by the Government. To obtain a ration card is not very difficult, but the quality of services is far from satisfactory. For most things in life, citizens depend on the services and facilities provided by government agencies. If there are too many public grievances against the government agencies, corrective measures have to be taken to redress those grievances. Indian Instrumentation:-

1. In India, it has been observed by many committees and commissions that special machinery should be set up to deal with public complaints against the administration. Various institutions exist to redress public grievances. Many kinds of administrative tribunals have been set up to provide cheap and speedy justice to the complainant. The Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, Labour Tribunal etc, are instances of this type of institution.

2. Secondly, Parliamentary procedure provides for opportunities to raise questions in Parliament by the elected representatives concerning their constituencies. Also, there is a Parliamentary Committee called the Committee on Petitions. A citizen may submit petitions to secure redress against an act of injustice. So, even though a distant body, Parliament or State Legislature can take up the cause of an aggrieved citizen.


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