NIOS Social Science 213 Solved Paper’ April 2015
NIOS Secondary Solved Papers
1. Which amount of annual rainfall is suitable for the production of wheat in India?
(A) Less than 75 cm.
(B) 75 to 100 cm.
(C) 100 to 150 cm.
(D) None of these.
2. In which year was the 74th amendment of the constitution passed?
3. Which of the following in an Abiotic content of atmosphere?
4. Which of the following is not a threat for India’s peace and security’?
(C) Naxalite movement.
5. Write names of two leaders of Farazi Movement. 2
Ans. Haji Shariatullah and Muhsinuddin Ahmad
6. Why is road transport popular in hill areas? Give two reasons. 2
Ans. Road transport popular in hill areas because of the following reasons:-
a) It is difficult to construct railway lines in hilly areas and making air port is also difficult.
b) Roads provide door to door service and is effective for short distance travels.
7. Name the two types of Legislatures existing in India states with one example of each. 2
Ans. Two types of Legislatures existing in India states are:-
1. Bicameral legislatures e.g. Uttar Pradesh
2. Unicameral legislature e.g. Assam
8. Why was ‘Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana’ implemented? Give two reasons. 2
Ans. ‘Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana’ was implemented due to the following reasons:-
1) It has been designed to improve the quality of life of the rural poor by providing them additional gainful employment.
2) To create of demand-driven village infrastructure including durable assets for increasing the opportunities for sustained employment and generation of supplementary employment for the unemployed poor in rural areas.
9. Describe the main features of the Mesopotamian Civilizations of the Bronze age. 4
Ans. Mesopotamia was the land lying between two rivers, Tigris and Euphrates, which lie in modern day Iraq. These rivers were often in flood and in this process they deposited a lot of silt which made the land around them very fertile. This resulted in increased food production. The abundant agricultural produce enabled the growth of a number of crafts persons like smiths, potters masons, weavers and carpenters. They sold their products and got their necessities from others in exchange. They carried on trade with far-off places like India. Carts, wagons, boats and ships were used for transport and communication. They also developed the art of writing.
10. Explain how Bengal was occupied by the British. 4
Ans. The British made Mir Jafar , the new Nawab of Bengal, in return for which they receive an enormous sum of money as well as the territory of 24 Parganas from the Nawab. But Mir Jafar was not able to make further payments to them. As a result he was replaced by Mir Qasim who proved to be a strong ruler. Mir Qasim was not ready to meet their demands for more money or control. As a result, Mir Qasim was removed and Mir Jafar was make the Nawab again. Mir Qasim then joined hands with the Nawab of Awadh, Shiraj-ud-daula and the Mughal emperor Shah Allam II in plotting against the British, the battle took place at a place called Buxar on 22 October 1764. Their defeat proved to be decisive.
Though the British successfully gained control over Bengal, the imposition of British rule throughout India was not an easy task.
11. Describe the main features of the caste system that prevailed in India during 18th century. 4
Ans. Indian society had a caste system which was originally occupation based. Over a period of time, interpretation of religious texts by the upper caste and lack of access to religious scriptures by the lower caste led to several superstitious practices in the name of religion. This also resulted in power being concentrated in upper caste and exploitation of the lower caste.
Hindu society was based on the Varna system, that is, Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. According to this system people were divided on the basis of their occupation. The people who were engaged in praying and worshipping the Gods were categorized as Brahmins. Those who were engaged in wars were called Kshatriyas. Those whose occupation was agriculture and trading were known as Baishyas and those who used to serve the upper three Barnas were known as Shudras. This caste system, which was purely based on occupation, had become hereditary. A person born in a particular caste could not change his/her caste even though they might have changed their work. This created inequality in society.
12. Explain the nature of popular resistance movements against British rule before the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. 4
Ans. Nature of Popular Resistance Movements:- Violence and plunder were the two most popular tools used by the rebels to express their resistance against their oppressors. Lower and exploited classes often attacked their exploiters. They were the Britishers or the zamindars or the revenue collecting officials, wealthy groups and individuals. Santhal Rebellion saw mass scale violence where account books of money lenders and government buildings were burnt and their exploiters punished.
It is important to know that these popular resistance movements aimed at restoration of old structures and relations which had been done away with by the British. Each social group had its own reasons to raise its voice against the colonial powers.
13. “Communalism rise in India and succeeded in dividing the country.” Examine the statement. 4
Ans. THE COMMUNAL DIVIDE The policy of divide and rule was inaugurated right in the days of East India Company when the Britishers were establishing themselves as rulers of India. You have read how the Company set one Indian ruler against the other and ultimately it became the undisputable ruler. You have seen that, in the latter half of the 19th Century, Nationalism started growing. Now the British government found it prudent to vitalize their policies of divide and rule and drive a wedge between the Hindus and Muslims. The British had looked upon the Muslims with disfavour and suspicion since the revolt of 1857. But now they realized that in order to counteract the growing Nationalism, time had come to appease the Muslims. The Government seized every opportunity to set the Indians against one another on the basis of religion and creating hostility between them.
14. Why are the Western Ghats considered as a significant part of our country? Explain any four reasons. 4
Ans. The Western Ghats considered as a significant part of our country because of the following reasons:-
a) Western Ghats or Sahyadris lie on the Western edge of the Deccan plateau. It runs parallel to the western coast for about 1600 km.
b) The average elevation of the Western Ghats is 1000 metres. The famous peaks in this area are Doda Betta, Anaimudi and Makuriti.
c) The highest peak in this region is Anaimudi (2695m.) Western Ghats are continuous and can be crossed through passes like Pal Ghat, Thal Ghot and Bhor Ghat.
d) The rivers like Godavari, Bhima and Krishna
🙂 SOCIAL SCIENCE 213
15. Explain any four features of ‘Cold weather season’ in India. 4
Ans. Four features of ‘Cold weather season’ are as follows:-
1) The duration of cold weather season is from December to February. The temperature decreases from the South to the North.
2) December and January are the coldest months and the average temperature in North is (12 to 15 degree C) and in South 25 degree C).
3) Frost is common in the North and North-West India. there is light rainfall in this region due to Western disturbances. Higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall.
4) During the winter season, North-East trade winds prevail over India. they blow from land to dea. Hence, for most part of the country, it is dry season.
16. Explain four reasons why biodiversity is significant for us. 4
Ans. Reasons why biodiversity is significant for us.
a) Biodiversity is fundamental to the existence of life on the earth. Its significance cannot be underestimated. There are varieties of living things that exist in a given physical environment. These are interdependent and interrelated in the form of an ecosystem.
b) The nature of vegetation in any area determines the animal like. When the vegetation of a place is altered, animal life also changes and simultaneously it affects mankind.
c) Loss of an component in the system adversely affects other components of the system. We are an integral part of the ecosystem.
d) The ecosystem is extremely valuable in different facets of human life which includes the following:-
(1) Providing of food, water, fibre, fuel etc.
(2) Regulating of climate and disease (For example: people are suffering from cold and cough in winters and stomach infections in monsoon etc.)
17. Explain the main objectives of the National population policy of India (year 2000). 4
Ans. The National Population Policy 2000 has made a qualitative departure in its approach to population issues. It does not directly lay emphasis on population control. It states that the objective of economic and social development is to improve the quality of lives that people lead, to enhance their well-being, and to provide the opportunities and choices to become productive assets (resources) in the society. Stabilizing population is an essential requirement for promoting sustainable development. The immediate objective of the NPP 2000 is to address the unmet needs for contraception, health care infrastructure, and health personnel, and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care.
18. Describe the significance of ‘sovereignty’ as a value given in the preamble of the Indian Constitution. 4
Ans. Sovereignty:- It declares India “a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic”. Being sovereign means having complete political freedom and being the supreme authority. It implies that India is internally all powerful and externally free. It is free to determine for itself without any external interference (either by any country or individual) and nobody is there within to challenge its authority. This feature of sovereignty gives us he dignity of existence as a nation in the international community. Though the Constitution does not specify where the sovereign authority lies but mention of ‘We the people of India’ in the Preamble clearly indicates that sovereignty rests with the people of India.
19. Explain the main features of Fundamental Rights given to Indian citizens by the Constitution of India. 4
Ans. Fundamental Rights given in the Constitution of India are:-
(1) Right To Equality:- Right to Equality means that all citizens enjoy equal privileges and opportunities. It protects the citizens against any discrimination by the State on the basis of religion, caste, race, sex, or place of birth.
(2) Right To Freedom:- Freedom is the basic characteristic of a true democracy. Our Constitution guarantees to the citizens of India a set of six freedoms described as the “Rights to Freedom.” (i) freedom of speech and expression (ii) freedom to assemble peacefully without arms. (iii) freedom to form associations or unions. (iv) freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India. (v) freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India. (vi) freedom to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
(3) Right against Exploitation:- The people of India were exploited not only by the British but also by the money lenders and zamindars. This system was called forced labour. Right against exploitation prohibits all forms of forced labour as well as traffic in human beings. The violation of this provision is an offence punishable under law. The state require citizens services in times of major calamities such as floods, forest fire, foreign aggression etc.
(4) Right to Freedom of Religion:- It also permits every religious group, the right to manage its own affairs in matters of religion. Every religious sect has the right to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes. Each religious group is also free to purchase and manage its movable and immovable property in accordance with law, for the propagation of its religion.
20. Why are the Directive Principles not included in Fundamental Rights but kept as the guidelines for the State Policy? 4
Ans. Directive Principles of State Policy are in the form of instructions/guidelines to the governments at the centre as well as states. Though these principles are non-justifiable, they are fundamental in the governance of the country.
The idea of Directive Principles of State Policy has been taken from the Irish Republic.
They were incorporated in our Constitution in order to provide economic justice and to avoid concentration of wealth in the hands of a few people. Therefore, no government can afford to ignore them. They are in-fact, the directives to the future governments to incorporate them in the decisions and policies to be formulated by them.
21. Explain the miscellaneous functions of the Indian Parliament. 4
Ans. Miscellaneous Functions:- The Parliament has the power to remove the President and the Vice President by a special majority of votes. This process is called as Impeachment. It has the power to amend the Constitution. Certain parts of the Constitution can be amended by a simple majority and certain others require two-thirds majority. Some other parts of the Constitution can be amended with special majority of the Parliament and the approval of the Legislatures of half of the States.
22. Examine the role played by pressure groups in the democratic functioning of a polity. 4
Ans. In the democratic functioning of a polity, pressure groups play a vital role. They seek to promote, discuss, debate and mobilize public opinion on major public issues. In this process, they educate people and widen their vision, enhance their democratic participation and raise and articulate various issues. These groups try to being changes in public policy.
To achieve their objectives and goals, the pressure groups employ various techniques and methods. These include appeals, petitions, demonstrations, picketing, lobbying, and processions. They also write in the media, distribute pamphlets, issue press releases, organize discussions and debates, put up posters and chant slogans.
23. Explain the meaning and importance of national integration. 2+2=4
Ans. This term has two words: nation and integration. A nation is a country with a unified socio-economic and political structure. It denotes a body of people who have a feeling of oneness, built on the basis of common history, society, culture and values. This feeling of oneness binds the people together in to a nation. in general terms it is this feeling which is known as national integration.
National integration is the awareness of a common identity amongst the citizens of a country.
It means that though the individuals belong to different communities, castes, religions, cultures and regions and speak different languages, all of them recognize the fact that they are one.
24. Describe the way of life in a feudal manor in medieval Europe. 5
Ans. The way of life in a feudal manor in medieval Europe:- The few centuries after the collapse of the Roman Empire were marked by a low level of economic life. This was also a period of political change and turmoil. There was a decline in town life, trade and monetary exchange. Some cities did survive from Roman days but these were only empty shells which had no real economic role. Roads deteriorated. Barter widely replaced the use of money. European economy was based almost entirely on agriculture and very limited local trade. The main economic unit was the self-sufficient landed estate, or the feudal manor. Technology used in agriculture was backward and agricultural yields were low. These conditions lasted till about the 10th century AD.
25. Examine the changes brought by Industrial Revolution in the life of workers. 5
Ans. IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The Industrial Revolution also encouraged the movement of the masses towards cities which gave birth to an urban society. The workers now lived close to the workshops or the factories where they were provided employment opportunities. But the working conditions in the factories were miserable along with poor housing, hygiene and health conditions. The factory owners had only one motive and that was to make profit. Hence he forced the workers to work for long hours on low wages – sometimes 12 to 14 hours daily. Women and children were paid very low wages. The factories were poorly ventilated, noisy, dirty, damp and dark. Do you think this situation continued for long? Gradually the workers began to realise their strength. The pressure came from trade unions. A movement began to save the workers from the injustices of the factory system. Many laws were made to reform the working and living conditions.
26. Describe the process of poling in India during elections. 5
Ans. We must have noticed that the polling day, at every polling booth is a day full of activities. On the day of the polling, the voters go to their respective polling booths, and wait in a queue, for their turn. On entering the polling room, the voter discloses his/her identity to the first polling officer, and then to the second one. After that, another polling officer puts indelible ink on ht first finger of left hand in the case of a male voter, and on the right hand in case of female voter. This is done to avoid bogus or false voting or impersonation. Impersonation, we must be aware is an offence, punishable by law. After the identification of the voter is done by the officials, the voter is given a ballot paper or is shown the electronic voting machine (EVM) containing the names of the candidates along with their respective election symbols.
27. Assess the efforts of the Government of India for economic empowerment of Scheduled Cates and Scheduled Tribes. 5
Ans. Economic Empowerment:- Employment and income generation programmes have been launched for the economic empowerment of socially disadvantage groups. The following apex financial organizations have been set up:-
1) The National Scheduled Cates Finance and Development Corporation (NSFDC) provides financial and other support to beneficiaries for taking up various income generating activities.
2) The National Safai Karamchari Finance and Development Corporation (NSKFDC) provides financial and other support to Safai karamcharis for taking up various income generating activites.
3) The National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC) supports various income and employment generating activities through loans, marketing support, training and so on.
4) The Scheduled Castes Development Corporations (SCDCs) finance employment oriented schemes that cover agriculture and allied activities including minor irrigation, small scale industry, transport and trade and service sector.
5) The Scheduled Tribes Development Corporations (STDCs) function as channelizing agencies and extending financial and other assistance to beneficiaries. The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Ltd. (TRIFED) provides marketing assistance to STs for collection of minor forest produce and surplus agricultural produce.