NIOS Social Science 213 Solved Paper’ October 2021, NIOS Secondary Solved Papers

NIOS Social Science 213 Solved Paper’ October 2021

NIOS Secondary Solved Papers


(1) All questions are compulsory and carry marks as indicated against each question.

(2) For Multiple Choice Questions four options are given. You have to choose right option and indicate it in your answer book.

(3) Attach the map with answer sheet.

1. Mesopotamian civilization was situated between which of the following rivers?              1

(A) Ganga and Yamuna.

(B) Nile and Congo.

(C) Tigris and Euphrates.

(D) Hwango and Chang Jiang.

2. Which one of the following was the most important and prominent rebellion of tribals after 1857?                     1

(A) Santhal Rebellion.

(B) Garo Rebellion.

(C) Jaintia Rebellion.

(D) Munda Rebellion.

3. Which one of the following freedoms is not provided in the Indian Constitution?                   1

(A) Freedom of speech and expression.

(B) Freedom to form associations and unions.

(C) Freedom to move freely across the world.

(D) Freedom to reside and settle in any part of India.

4. Which one of the following is the greatest threat to peace and security of a country?           1

(A) Casteism.

(B) Terrorism.

(C) Poverty.

(D) Nepotism.

5. Mention any two features of Fascism.            2

Ans. A number of political movements arose in Europe which was given the name Fascism. They had a number of features which were common that is hostility to democracy and socialism, and the aim to establish dictatorship. They were supported by the rulers, the upper class aristocrats and the capitalists because they promise to save them from the danger of socialism.

6. Why was the Khilafat Movement started? Explain.                   2

Ans. Gandhiji wanted non violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.  The government paid no heed to it.  Gandhiji, therefore, started his non-cooperation movement in August 1920, in which he appealed to the people not to cooperate with the British government. At this time, the Khilafat movement started by the Muslims and the Non-cooperation movement led by Gandhi merged into one common confrontation against the British Government. 

7. Why is there a need to conserve Bio-diversity? Explain with an example.                   2

Ans. We look for food, water, shelter and fibre in nature. All these are interrelated and interdependent. If any one component is disrupted, it would have multiple impacts on other components of biodiversity. If we want to conserve our natural vegetation and wildlife we need ot relook at the way we exploit these.

For example, Vegetation is key component of biodiversity. Without vegetation, the animals and some micro-organisms would die for lack of habitat, food and oxygen.

8. Mention any two Constitutional values given in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.           2

Ans. Constitutional values given in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution are:-

(a) Sovereignty:- It declares India “a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic.” Being sovereign means having complete political freedom and being the supreme authority.

(b) Socialism:– Socialism has been made a constitutional value aimed at promoting social change and transformation to end all forms of inequalities.

9. Explain the contribution of the Gupta rulers in the field of administration.            4

Ans. Monarchy was the prevailing system of government during the Gupta Age. The king was assisted by a Council of Ministers and other officials in day to day administration. The Guptas had a powerful army. The provinces were ruled by governors. The Governors had under them a number of officers who administered the districts and towns. Village administration under the village headman (Gramika) enjoyed considerable autonomy. The Guptas also developed an efficient system of judicial and revenue administration.

10. Explain the main features of the Later Vedic Period society.                 4

Ans. During the Later Vedic period, there was a large scale eastward movement of the Aryan communities Indo-Gangetic Doab and Upper Ganga plains. Towards the end of the period, three important kingdoms came up further East: Kashi, Koshala and Videha. Agriculture was now the main occupation, and number of crops including rice, wheat and sugarcane were grown. Crafts also multiplied, iron weapons and tools were introduced. People now led a settled life in villages. Castes began to emerge and crystallise in the form of four Varnas-Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras.

11. How was the Mauryan Empire established? Explain.                 4

Ans. Out of the sisteen Mahajanapadas, it was Magadha that expanded considerably under powerful rulers like Bimbisara, Ajatashatru and Mahapadmananda. The last king of the Nanda dynasty was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 BC He established the Maurya Empire uprooting Greeks from the Punjab and Nandas from the Gangetic Plains. By a continuous process of conquest and annexation he was able to unify almost the whole of India.

12. Explain the political and economic life of the Greeks.                  4

13. Describe any four features of Western Ghats.                   4

Ans. Four features of Western Ghats are:-

a)  Western Ghats or Sahyadris lie on the Western edge of the Deccan plateau. It runs parallel to the western coast for about 1600 km.

b) The average elevation of the Western Ghats is 1000 metres. The famous peaks in this area are Doda Betta, Anaimudi and Makuriti.

c) The highest peak in this region is Anaimudi (2695m.) Western Ghats are continuous and can be crossed through passes like Pal Ghat, Thal Ghot and Bhor Ghat.

d) The rivers like Godavari, Bhima and Krishna 

14. Explain any four characteristics of Monsoon in India.                4

Ans. Characteristics of the Monsoon are:-

(1) Monsoons are not steady winds. They are irregular in nature affected by different atmospheric conditions i.e. due to regional climatic conditions.

(2) Sometimes monsoon early or sometimes late.

(3) Monsoon are not equally distributed. Coastal areas like Kerala West Bengal and Odisha receive heavy rain fall, whereas interior regions like Haryana, Madhya Pradesh receive less rainfall.

(4) When monsoon arrives, it gives heavy rainfall which continues for several days. This is known as ‘burst of monsoon’. This occurs mainly at Kerala coast where it reaches first.


April 2012

April 2013

April 2014

April 2015

April 2016

April 2021

October 2015

October 2019

October 2021

15. “From olden days till now waterways have been import means of transportation.” Examine the statement.               4

Ans. From olden days till now waterways had been an important means of transportation. It is because:

(a) It is the cheapest means as compared to other means of transport because it involves no expenditure on construction other than maintenance.

(b) It is very useful for transporting heavy and bulky goods. A ship can carry lakhs of tonnes of goods at a time.

(c) It is a better mode of transportation for petroleum and its products as it involves cross-continental transfers. India lacks in petroleum deposit and most of it is imported from Middle East countries. 

(d) It is fuel efficient and environment friendly means of transportation.

16. Describe the role of Gram Sabha in a Gram Panchayat.               4

Ans. In a year at least two meetings of the Gram Sabha are held. In its first meeting the Gram Sabha considers the budget of the Gram Panchayat. In its second meeting it considers the reports of the Gram Panchayat. The main functions of Gram Sabha are to review the annual accounts of Panchayat, discuss audit and administrative reports and the tax proposals of its Panchayat and accept community service, voluntary labour and schemes for Panchayat. The members of Gram Sabha elect the members and also the Chairperson of Gram Panchayat. The States have to ensure that all the Gram Sabhas in their respective areas are functional.  

17. Describe any four features of the Indian Constitution.                    4

Ans. The main features of the Constitution are as follows:

(a) Written Constitution:- The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution. It contains a Preamble, 395 Articles in 22 Parts, 12 Schedules and 5 Appendices. It is a document of fundamental laws that define the nature of the political system and the structure and functioning of organs of the government.

(b) Fundamental Rights and Duties :- The Constitution guarantees the rights to individuals against the State as well as against other individuals. The Constitution also guarantees the rights of minorities against the majority. Besides these rights, the Constitution has provisions identifying fundamental duties, though these are not enforceable as the fundamental rights are.

(c) Integrated Judicial System:- The Indian Constitution has established an integrated judicial system. Although the Supreme Court is at the national level, High Courts at the state level and Subordinate Courts at the district and lower level, there is a single hierarchy of Courts.

(d) Single Citizenship:- Indian Constitution has provision for single citizenship. It means that every Indian is a citizen of India, irrespective of the place of his/her residence or birth in the country. This is unlike the United States of America where there is the system of double citizenship.

18. Explain the powers of Governor of a state.                           4

Ans. The powers of the Governor can be categorized as

1) Executive Powers:- The Constitution of India vests the entire executive powers of the State in the Governor who performs these functions according to the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as its head.

2) Legislative Powers:- The Governor is an inseparable part of the State Legislature and as such he/she has been given certain legislative powers. He/she has the right to summon and prorogue the State Legislature and can dissolve the State Legislative Assembly.

3) Financial Powers:- ‘the Annual Financial Statement’ of the State is prepared and presented by the State Finance Minister before the State Legislature, on behalf of the Governor. Moreover, no money bill can be introduced in the State Legislature without the recommendations of the Governor. He/she also has control over the State Contingency Fund.

4) Discretionary Powers:- The Governor acts on the advice of the State Council of Ministers. This means that in reality, the Governor has no powers. But according to the Constitution, under special circumstances, he/she may act without the advice fo the Council of Ministers. Such powers, which are exercised by the Governor on his own, are called discretionary powers.

19. Highlight the various stages of the Election Process in India.                4

Ans. The election process is a considerably long process having numerous stages. It is important for you to recognize various stages of the electoral process, which are as follows:

1. Delimitation of constituencies is the first step which is undertaken by the Delimitation Commission.

2. Preparation and revision of the electoral roll constitute the next step done under the supervision of the Election Commission periodically.

3. Consequent upon the President’s and Governor’s notifications, the Election Commission undertakes the task of conducting elections in the country.

4. The election schedule is announced indicating the dates for filling the nomination papers, their scrutiny, withdrawals, polling, counting of the votes, and declaration of the election results.

20. Differentiate between National and Regional Political parties with examples.          4

Ans. The National Political Parties have areas of influence extending over the entire country. Since the last general elections held in 2009 the recognized national political parties in India are: the Indian National Congress (INC), the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) etc.

The Regional Political Parties, as recognized by the Election Commission, are those political parties which receive a certain amount of votes or seats in a State. The number of regional political parties in the country is fairly large. Some of the leading regional political parties in India include Trinamool Congress (West Bengal), Assam Gana Parishad (Assam), All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Tamil Nadu) etc.

21. Describe the four phases involved in Disaster Management.                  4

Ans. Its process involves four phases:

1. Mitigation:- Mitigation may appear to you as a technical or difficult term. It means the efforts that are made to prevent hazards from developing into disasters, or to reduce the effects of disasters to the minimum, when they occur.

2. Preparedness:- In the preparedness phase, disaster managers develop plans of action for when the disaster strikes. This includes (a) communication plans with easily understandable terminology and methods, (b) proper maintenance and training of emergency services, (c) development of emergency shelters and evacuation plans, (d) getting ready and maintaining disaster supplies and equipment and (e) developing organizations of trained volunteers among civilian populations.

3. Response:- When a disaster occurs, actions under the response phase are taken. These include the mobilization of the necessary emergency services and also of people who respond immediately in the disaster area.

4. Recovery:- The aim of the recovery  phase is to restore the affected area to its previous state. It differs from the response phase in its focus. Recovery efforts are primarily concerned with actions that involve rebuilding destroyed property, re-employment, and the repair of essential infrastructure.

22. How does literacy play an important role in the success of a democracy? Explain.              4

Ans. The significance and necessity of education for efficient functioning of democracy was appreciated by the framers of the Indian Constitution. Which is why, free and compulsory education to all children up to the fourteen years of age continued to remain constitutional commitment in India? Various governments at national and state levels have been making efforts to attain this goal. As a follow up of the National Policy on Education 1986, a National Literacy Mission was set up in 1988 to plan and implement programmes for the removal of illiteracy under the platform, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. But the goal of universal literacy is yet to be attained. Currently a nation-wide programme known as Saakshar Bharat is being implemented.

23. Analyze the provisions that have been made in the Indian Constitution for National Integration.                4

Ans. The Constitution of India lays great emphasis on national integration. Its Preamble includes unity and integrity of the nation as a major objective. It also stipulates that every citizen has the fundamental duty to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India. The Constitution reflects respect for diversity of the country, but it tries to ensure that the unity and integrity is maintained. Which is why, it has made provisions for a centralized federation and opted for a strong central government.

24. Who announced the Partition of Bengal? Describe its impacts on Indian Society.               5

Ans. Curzon announced the partition of Bengal in 1905. The reason for partition was given as an attempt to improve administration. But the real aim was t o ‘Divide and Rule.’ The partition was done in order to create a separate state for Muslims and so introduce the poison of communalism in the country. However the Indians viewed the partition as an attempt by the British to disrupt the growing national movement in Bengal and divide the Hindus and Muslims of the region. Widespread agitation ensued in the streets and in the press. People of different parts of India opposed the partition of Bengal all over the country. This opposition was carried on by organized meetings, processions and demonstrations etc. Hindus and Muslims tied ‘rakhi’ on each other’s hands to show their unity and their protest.

25. Explain the process of Unification of Germany.                  5

Ans. After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, many Germans wanted an independent Germany. Germany was a confederation of 39 small states, led by Austria and Prussia. These states were always at war with one another, deterring the economic progress of Germany. The King of Prussia, Kaiser William I, chose a Prime Minister Bismarck to unify Germany under the rule of Prussia, and excluding Austria and France completely. Bismarck was fearless and believed in the urgent need for unification in Germany. He started with the modernisation of the army, defying the parliament in collecting taxes. His policy came to be known as ‘Blood and Iron’ policy and earned him the nickname of the Iron Chancellor.’  In 1864, Bismarck joined hands with Austria against Denmark. Bismarck’s next target was Austria. Prussia defeated Austria and formed the North German Confederation.

 26. Explain the main features of Advancing South-West Monsoon Season’ in India.              5

Ans. Advancing South West Monsoon Season:- After the scorching heat of summer season people eagerly wait for the rains which can give them relief. Farmers wait for the rains so that they can prepare their fields for the next cropping season Kharif. June to September are the months of advancing South-West monsoon season. By the end May the monsoon through further intensifies over north India due to high temperature in the region. The General direction of the wind during this season is from South-West to north-east. These winds are strong and blow at an average velocity of 30 km per hour. These moisture laden winds first hit at Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the last week of May and Kerala coast in the first week of June with violent thunder and lightning. This South-West monsoon that flows in to India brings about a major change in its weather.

27. Describe the functions of the Indian Parliament.                         5

Ans. The Parliament is the supreme legislative body. It performs functions that may be categorized as follows:-

(a) Legislative Functions:- Parliament is a law making body. It legislates on the subjects mentioned in the Union List and the Concurrent List by the Constitution. If there is a clash between the Union government and the State government regarding any concurrent subject, the central law will prevail.

(b) Executive Functions:- In a parliamentary system, there is a close relationship between the legislature and the executive. The real executive i.e. the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha which can dislodge a ministry by passing a no confidence motion against it.

(c) Financial Functions:- The Parliament of India has been entrusted with the performance of important financial functions. It is the custodian of the public money. It controls the entire purse of the Union government. It sanctions, from time to time, money to the government to enable it to run the administration effectively and successfully.

(d) Judicial Functions:- The Parliament is empowered to prescribe the number of Judges of the Supreme Court by law. It is also authorized to establish a common High Court for two or more States as well as to constitute a High Court even for a Union Territory.

(e) Miscellaneous Functions:- The Parliament has the power to remove the President and the Vice President by a special majority of votes. This process is called as Impeachment. It has the power to amend the Constitution.

28 In the given political map of India, mark and label the following with appropriate symbols:     4

(1) Mizo Hills.

(2) Kaveri River.

(3) Simplipal National Park.

 (4) Leading Coffee producing state.

 29. Identify and write in your answer book the correct names of major International Airports of India marked by (A), (B), (C) and (D) in the given political map of India.                   4

Note: The following questions are for Visually Impaired Candidates only in place of Questions Nos. 28 and 29.

Answer to these questions must not be in more than a sentence.

(29.1) Name any two peaks of the Himalayas.

(29.2) Name the two major rivers that flow through Andhra Pradesh.

(29.3) Name two Wildlife Sanctuaries of Rajasthan.

(29.4) Name any two important species of trees of Tropical Deciduous Forests.


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