NIOS Political Science 317 Solved Paper’ April 2016, NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Papers

NIOS Political Science 317 Solved Paper’ April 2016

NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Papers

1. According to Karl Mark, What does Political Science study?                   2

Ans. The term “political economy” initially referred to the study of the material conditions of economic production in the capitalist system. In Marxism, political economy is the study of the means of production, specifically of capital and how that manifests as economic activity.

2. Why can’t a state exist without a government?                                            2

Ans. The general understanding of the world ‘state’ is that it describes a defined territory where a government has legal and operational control over that territory, with the prospect of continuing to do so.

It’s just about possible to imagine a situation in which a territory was geographically defined and had armed civilians who end masse defended it spontaneously. But once they started organising themselves and having even the simplest rules about who did what, then they’d have a government.

3. Mention the two major concerns of the framers of the Indian constitution.                  2

Ans. The following are the two major concerns of the framers of the India constitution:-

1. Zamindari system prevailing in society and exploitation of landless farmers by these zamindars du e to debt trap of years.

2. Land reforms-equitable distribution of land so that peasants can get some land and have dignified life by self sufficiency.

4. State any two legislative powers of the Governor of a state.                          2

Ans. Two legislative powers of the Governor of a state.:

a) He is to summon the House or each House of the State Legislature, if it is a bicameral legislature, to meet at such time and place as he deems fit. Six months should not, however, elapse between its last sitting in one session and the first in the next session.

b) He may prorogue the Houses or either House and dissolve the Legislative Assembly.

5. Illustrate with the help of any two examples that empowerment of weaker sections of society especially women, has been duly taken care of in local bodies.                              2

Ans. To empower women, reservation of one third of seats through the 73rd and 74th Amendment Act, 1991, 1992 for them has been made in the Panchayats and Municipalities. There is a similar proposal for reservation of seats for them in the Parliament and in the state Legislatures.

6. Identify any two rights which make the people of India politically sovereign.                        2

Ans. Two rights which make the people of India politically sovereign are:-

(a) Population, which implies a considerable group of human beings living together in a community.

(b) Territory, which is a defined portion of the earth’s surface upon which a population permanently resides. As pointed out by Harold Laski, “ the territories of a state are the regions over which it can exercise its sovereignty.”

 7. Explain the conditions required to get recognised as an All India National Party by the Election Commission.                    2

Ans. Conditions required to get recognised as an All India National Party by the Election Commission are:-

(1) Secure at least 6% of the valid vote in an Assembly or a Lok Sabha General Election in any four or more states and won at least 4 seats in a Lok Sabha General Election form any State or States.

(2) Win at least 2% of the total Lok Sabha seats in a Lok Sabha General Election and these seats have to be qn from at least 3 states.

(3) The party is recognized as a State Party in at least four states.

8. What was the two nation theory advocated by M.A. Jinnah?                 2

Ans. Two Nations theory is that Hindu and Muslims are completely two different nations from every perspective. We all Pakistanis, except some traitors who has the support of RAW, are thankful to Mr. Jinnah that due to his efforts we got an independent country Pakistan.

9. Assess the impact of the nuclear explosions by India in 1998 on the Indo-Chins ties.              2

Ans. China’s perception of India as a nuclear weapons power is important not only for the future evolution of the international nuclear regime but also for the ongoing Sino-Indian security situation. This study shows how China’s perceptions of India as nuclear power have shaped China’s contingency plans for a nuclear-armed India.

10. State any five points of distinction between state and the society.                       5

Ans.  The following are the five points of distinction between state and the society

a) In point of time, society is prior to the state. The people lived in society much before the state emerged.

b) State is organized, society may be organized or unorganized. The primitive society was unorganized, but the state is always organized.

c) Society exercises authority largely through customs and persuasion. The state exercise authority through laws and coercion.

d) State is a territorial organisation while a society does not occupy any definite territory. A society may extend to the whole world. It may be international like the Red Cross Society.

e) A society embraces the whole life of man and all those ties which bind men together. But the state is concerned only with those social relationships that express themselves through government.

11. Evaluate liberalism as a theory of reforms in social, economic and political fields.                   5

Ans.  In the United States, current political usage of the term social liberalism describes progressivism or cultural liberalism as opposed to social conservatism or cultural conservatism. A social liberal in this sense may hold either more interventionist or liberal views on fiscal policy.

Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, meaning that the greatest possible numbers of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations. Although economic liberals can also be supportive of government regulation to a certain degree, they tend to oppose government intervention in the free market when it inhibits free trade and open competition.

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 12. Describe the Fundamental Right to Freedom of Religion.                     5

Ans. Right to Freedom- The articles 19,20,21A and 22 contain the provisions of the right to freedom. As per 19, the following six freedoms are guaranteed to every person of the country:

1) Freedom of speech and expression:- Every person has freedom of speech and expression. However, the state can inflict a restriction on this freedom in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of the country, for the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, in relation to the contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offense.

2) Freedom to assemble:- Every person has the freedom to assemble peacefully without arms. However, the State can leave restrictions in the interest of public order and the sovereignty and integrity of the country.

3) Freedom to form associations or unions or co-operative societies:- The State can enforce restrictions  on such freedom in the interest of public order, morality and the sovereignty and integrity of the country.

4) Freedom to move freely:- An Indian citizen has the freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India. But the government can impose restrictions on this right only in the interest of the general public.

5) Freedom to reside and settle:- Citizens of India have the freedom to reside anywhere in the country. However, in the interest of the general public or for the protection of the scheduled tribes the State may impose certain restrictions.

6) Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any business, occupation or trade:- Every person can carry any business or practice any profession provided it is not dangerous or immoral. Also, professional or technical qualifications must be acquired before practicing any profession or carrying on any trade.

13. Explain the composition of the state Legislature in India. Which states in India have a Bicameral Legislature?                  5

Ans. The Legislative Council should be constituted in the following manner:-

(a) One-third of the members are to be elected by the members of carious local bodies, such as Municipalities and District Boards.

(b) One-twelfth of the members are to be elected by university graduates living in the state. These graduates must have at least three-year standing.

(c) One-twelfth of the members are to be elected by the teachers of educational institutions not lower in standard than that of secondary schools.

(d) One-third of the members are to be elected by the members of the Legislative Assembly from among persons who are not he members of the Legislative Assembly.

(e) The rest of the members (about one sixth of the total membership) are to be nominated by the Governor from among persons having special knowledge and experience in the fields of art, literature, science, social service, cooperative movement etc.

14. Justify that the policy of reservation in India is an instance of protective discrimination.      5

Ans. The Indian society has always been a caste-ridden, stratified hierarchical society and a certain segment of the society has always been affected by  the inequalities.

According to the Indian Constitution, Protective discrimination is the policy of granting special privileges to the downtrodden and the underprivileged sections of society, especially women. They are supportive action programs in regions like India and the United States where there has been a history of racial and caste discrimination, especially in India as it has been included in the constitution and is institutionalized.

Specific provisions for reservations like equality of opportunity in employment and education, that are in favour of the members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have been made in Constitution of India.

The primary criticism raised against the policy of reservations is that it is at the cost of meritocracy and that it promotes mediocrity in a developing nation like India.

This is very common in the counselling sessions for entry into an educational institution where a merit student might lose a seat to a mediocre reservation student.

15. In your opinion, which five measures should be given top priority to check environmental pollution.               5

Ans. Some of the effective and practical control measures for minimizing environmental pollution are outlined below:

a) Reducing the use of personal vehicles and using mass transportation facilities.

b) Using battery operated vehicles and using sustainable energy.

c) Harnessing solar energy and preventing use of coal and non renewable resources.

d) Following water efficient theories and water harvesting philosophy.

e) Reduce reuse substitute technology implementation.

16. Describe the changes that took place in the views about Human Rights after the Second World War.                    5     

Ans. According to the classical international law, the individual as an object had no rights and duties. However, the relationship between the individual and the society has undergone changes over the recent years. Since the western view on human rights has prevailed in contemporary international society for a long time and can be traced back to medieval Europe, it seems appropriate to consider it as a historic point of departure for investigating that relationship.

With the emergence of despotic regimes towards the close of the middle ages, the struggle for human rights commenced. This struggle led to the great political revolutions of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries…

Those facets of human rights that had, then, been encroached upon were formulated into declarations and bills of rights and written subsequently in national constitutions.

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the commercial activities of certain European states were expanded, and the need for protecting groups of nationals was deeply felt by these states. They satisfied the exigency by including specific clauses in their treaties with some non European states.

17. How has India contributed to the United nations significantly on disarmament?                  8

Ans.  India was among the original members of the United Nations that signed the Declaration by United Nations at Washington, D.C. on 1944 October and also participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco from 25 April to 26 June 1945. As a founding member of the United Nations, India strongly supports the purposes and principles of the UN and has made significant contributions in implementing the goals of the Charter, and the evolution of the UN’s specialised programmes and agencies.

India has been a member of the UN Security Council for seven terms (a total of 14 years), India is a member of G4, group of nations who back each other in seeking a permanent seat on the Security Council and advocate in favour of the reformation of the UNSC. India is also part of the G-77.

India is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialised agencies and organizations. India has contributed troops to United Nations peacekeeping efforts in Korea, the Congo in its earlier years and in Somalia, Angola, Haiti, Liberis, Lebanon and Rwanda in recent years, and more recently in the South Sudan conflict.


Highlight the new opportunities that came up after the cold war to bring India and the U.S. closer to each other.

Ans. So far as the debate in Lok Sabha on the Indo- US agreement, on nuclear energy, the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh says that recent time, India’s impressive economic development rate has made the country and alternative partner for a number of countries concerning USA. International politics largely in terms of military energy are fearful of the growing closeness between India and USA. The growing closeness of interest between the USA and India creates welfare for India. At the recent phase of global hegemony, India has needed a good partnership with the USA. Dr. Manmohan Sing believes that it is in the welfare of our country to have a good and pivotal relation with all the major countries, but interest on the relationship with USA. Hence, he advocate a strategy that would allowed India to take opportunity of US hegemony and the mutual relations to set up the best possible for itself. The highlighting factors show the Indo-US relationship and its importance.

(1) 15% of all high-tech starts up are by Indo- Americans.

(2) The USA absorbs about 65% of India’s total exports in the software sectors.

(3) 35% of the technical staff of doing is estimated to be of India.

18. Explain the role played by Supreme Court of India as a custodian of civil liberties and protector of Fundamental Rights.                 2+6=8

Ans. The protection of individual liberties follows the notion of democracy as a natural corollary. This entails the espousal of a methodical configuration of laws by which society might be regulated and different conflicting interests can be harmonized to the fullest extent.

Protector of Fundamental Rights:-

Fundamental Rights are those rights which are essential for intellectual, moral and spiritual development of individuals. As these rights are fundamental or essential for existence and all-round development of individuals, hence called as ‘Fundamental’ Rights. There are six fundamental rights recognised by the Indian constitution:-

(a) The right to equality includes equality before the law, the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, gender or place of birth, equality of opportunity in matters of employment, the abolition of untouchability and abolition of titles.

(b) The right to freedom includes freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association or union or cooperatives, movement, residence, and right to practice any profession or occupation.

(c) The right against exploitation prohibits all forms of forced labour, child labour and trafficking of human beings.

(d) The right to freedom of religion includes freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion, freedom to manage religious affairs, freedom from certain taxes and freedom from religious instructions in certain educational institutes.

(e) Cultural and educational rights preserve the right of any section of citizens to conserve their culture, language or script, and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.

(f) The right to constitutional remedies is present for enforcement of fundamental rights. The right to privacy is an intrinsic part of Article 21 (the right to freedom) that protects the life and liberty of the citizens.


Explain the financial and judicial powers of the president of India.                 4+4=8

Ans.  Financial Powers:-

1) A money bill can be introduced in the parliament only with the president’s recommendation.

2) The president lays the Annual Financial Statement, i.e. the union budget, before the parliament.

3) The president can take advances out of the Contingency Fund of India to meet unforeseen expenses.

4) The president constitutes a Finance commission after every five years to recommend the distribution of the taxes between the centre and the states.

Judicial powers:-

The primary duty of the president is to preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law of India per Article 60. The president appoints the chief Justice of India and other judges on the advice of the chief justice. He dismisses the judges if and only if the two Houses of the parliament pass resolutions to that effect by a two-thirds majority of the members present.

19. Analyse the circumstances under which the National Emergency can be imposed by the President of India. What provisions have been made in the constitution of effectively use it and to check its abuse if need be?                     3+3+2=8

Ans. President of India, when he/she perceives grave threats to the nation from internal and external sources or from financial situations of crises. Under the advice of the cabinet of ministers and using the powers vested in him/her largely by part XVIII of the Constitution of India, the president can overrule many provisions of the constitution, which guarantee fundamental rights to the citizens of India and acts governing devolution of powers to the states which form the federation. Emergency provision falls within the Article 352 to Article 360 of the Indian Constitution.

1. National emergency (Article 352)

2. State emergency (Article 356)

3. Financial emergency (Article 360)

1. National Emergency:- The provision for National Emergency is provided for under the Article 352 of the Constitution. The national emergency deals with constitutional provisions to be applied, whenever there is an extraordinary situation that may threaten the peace, security, stability and governance of the country or a part thereof.

2. State Emergency:-It is the duty of the Union Government to ensure that governance of a state is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. Under Article 356, the president may issue a proclamation to impose emergency in a state if he is satisfied on receipt of a report from the Governor of the state, or otherwise, that a situation has arisen under which the Government of the state cannot be carried on smoothly. In such a situation, ‘proclamation of emergency by the President is called proclamation on account of the failure of constitutional machinery’. In popular language it is called the President’s Rule.

3. Financial Emergency:- The third type of Emergency is Financial Emergency provided under Article 360. It provides that if the President is satisfied that the financial stability or credit of India or any of its part is in danger, he may declare a state of Financial Emergency. Under such situation, the executive and legislative powers will go to the centre. Like the other two types of emergencies, it has also to be approved by the Parliament. It must be approved by both Houses of Parliament within two months. Financial Emergency can operate as long as the situation demands and may be revoked by a subsequent proclamation.


Examine any four salient features of Indian constitution that make, India a federation.           8

Ans. The salient features of the Constitution of India can be discussed as follows:-

a) Written and Detailed Constitution:-  The Constitution is a wholly written document which incorporates the constitutional law of India. It was fully debated and duly enacted by the Constitution Assembly of India. It took the Assembly 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to write and enact the Constitution. Indian Constitution is a very detailed constitution. It consists of 395 Articles divided into 22 parts with 12 Schedules and 94 constitutional amendments. It is a constitution of both the centre and states of Indian Union It is indeed much bigger than the US Constitution which has only 7 Articles and the French Constitution with its 89 Articles.

b) Self-made and Enacted Constitution:-  Indian Constitution is a constitution made by the people of India acting through their duly elected and representative body-the constituent Assembly that was organised in December 1946. Its first session was held on 9th December, 1946. It passed the Objectives Resolution on 22 January, 1947.

c) Preamble of the constitution:-  The Preamble to the Constitution of India is a well drafted document which states the philosophy of the constitution. It declares India to be a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and a welfare state committed to secure justice, liberty and equality for the people and for promoting fraternity, dignity the individual, and unity and integrity of the nation. The preamble is the key to the constitution. It states in nutshell the nature of Indian state and the objectives it is committed to secure for the people.

d) India is a Democratic Socialist State:- Although, right from the beginning the Indian Constitution fully reflected the spirit of democratic socialism, it was only in 1976 that the Preamble was amended to include the term ‘Socialism’. It is now regarded as a prime feature of Indian state. India is committed to secure social, economic and political justice for its entire people by ending all forms of exploitation and by securing equitable distribution of income, resources and wealth. This is to be secured by peaceful, constitutional and democratic means.

20. Assess the role played by the press, television,
public meeting and political parties in the formation of public opinion.              4 x 2=8

Ans. The Agencies which help to formulate public opinion are:

(1) Radio and Television:- Radio and television is a form of electronic media. It acts as a mirror of social life. The electronic media plays an important role in collecting the information and thoughts of the uneducated people also. Electronic media is used to educate the masses on certain issues like Casteism, communalism violence etc., with the help of radio and television people can communicate their feelings and opinion towards various government policies and programmes.

(2) Press:- Press or the print media consists of newspapers periodicals, pamphlets, journals leaflets. They supply the news regarding on political and social happenings all over the world Express their views or criticism or support in the form article or comments through press.

(3) Public Meetings:- Public meetings are the effective ways of moulding public opinion for different activities like social, culture, intellectual and political. Public issues and are able to collect very large crowd from lectures, seminars, symposia, workshops and conferences.

(4) Political Parties:- Political parties can also be called as the agent of political education. This informs the public about the activities, failures and errors of the government.


Analyse any four factors responsible for the growth of regionalism in India.                  8

Ans.:- Some of the most important causes of regionalism in India are as follows:-

a) Geographical Factor:- The territorial orientation based on geographical boundaries relate to the inhabitants of a particular region which are symbolic, at least in the Indian context. This is more so because of the linguistic distribution along geographical boundaries. The topographic and climatic variations along with differences in the settlement pattern induce in people the concept of regionalism.

b) Historical and Cultural Factors:- In Indian scenario the historical or cultural factors may be considered the prime components of the phenomenon of regionalism. The historical and cultural components interpret regionalism by way of cultural heritage, folklore, myths, symbolism and historical traditions. People of a particular cultural group also derive inspirations from the noble deeds and glorious achievements of the local heroes. Nevertheless there are sudden political and economic realities which can be covered under the gamut of historical and cultural factors.

c) Cast and Region:- Caste system and religion in Indian society play only a marginal role in causing regionalism. Only when caste is combined with linguistic preponderance or religion it may cause regional feeling. In the like manner religion is not so significant except when it is combined with linguistic homogeneity or based on dogmatism and orthodoxy or lined with economic deprivation. However, regionalism is usually a secular phenomenon in a relative sense and it can cross-cut the caste affiliation or religious loyalties.

d) Economic Factors:- In the present times, uneven developments in different parts of the country may be construed as the prime reason for regionalism and separatism. There are certain regions in the country where industries and factories have been concentrated, educational and health facilities are sufficiently provided, communication net work has been developed, rapid agricultural development has been made possible. But there are also certain areas where the worth of independence is yet to be realized in terms of socio-economic development.



21. Why are the World Bank and the IMF are under severe criticism?                      2

Ans.:- The World Bank has been criticized because of a perceived conflict between their stated goals and their actual goals.

IMF is under criticism because the IMF deal with economic crises, whatever policy they offer, there are likely to be difficulties. It is not possible to deal with a balance of payments without some painful readjustment.

 22. How does the United Nations act as a mediator between the warring nations?                  5

Ans. The United Nations must be “bold and creative” in harnessing the avenues and capacities available for mediation, Secretary-General Antonio Guterres told the Security Council today in an open debate on the topic.

“we must make prevention our priority,” he said, by investing in mediation, peace building and sustainable development. The United Nations has various resources it deploys, including the Standby Team of Senior Mediation Advisers, whose members are providing guidance in the Central African Republic on transitional justice and assisting in the design of a mediation process in

23. What is meant by World Order? Mention the set of three rules and principles which are commonly accepted and respected by governments to create World Order.                  2+6=8

Ans. Analytically, world order refers to the arrangement of power and authority that provides the framework for the conduct of diplomacy and world politics on a global scale.

The three principles are:-

1) Supremacy of Law:- The rule of law requires both citizens and governments to be subject to known and standing laws. The supremacy of law also requires generality in the law. This principle is a further development of the principle of equality before the law. Laws should not be made in respect of particular persons. As Dicey postulated, the rule of the law presupposes the absence of wide discretionary authority in the rulers, so that they cannot make their own laws but must govern according to the established laws. Those laws ought not to be too easily changeable. Sable laws are a prerequisite of the certainty and confidence which form an essential part of individual freedom and security. Therefore, laws ought to be rooted in moral principles, which cannot be achieved if they are framed in too detailed a manner.

2) Equality before Law:-  The second principle emphasize everyone, including the government, irrespective of rank, shall be subject to the same law and courts. This element is interpreted to be misguided and facing bundle of criticisms. In fact, by reason of maintaining the law and order in the society, three are actually exceptions such as the Crown, Police, Members of Parliament. The Crown may exercise prerogative  powers which may defeat the rights of individuals. The police have powers over and above the citizen. Members of Parliament have immunity from the law of defamation.

3) Predominance of Legal Spirit:- The Third meaning of the rule of law is that the general principles of the constitution are the result of juridical decisions determining file rights of private persons in particular cases brought before the Court.


Describe the need for restructuring the United Nations.                     8

Ans. The global politics has undergone a drastic change ever since the inception of the United Nations. Over the years, there have been a lot of discussions and deliberations on reforming the UN Security Council.

The UN Security Council, as argued, doesn’t represent the contemporary global realities and needs to be more representative in nature. The USSR has collapsed and US has emerged as the supreme leader, while India and China are emerging as the global players and potential economic powers. Many new countries have become members of the UN. Thus exigencies of the present demand restructuring of United Nations.

Security Council, in its present form, reflects western values and beliefs’ therefore, it is important to have representation from the Asian societies to make it universal in character.

It lacks equitable representation as it represents the interests of the western developed countries more than those of the developing countries ‘ therefore, there is a need to expand its membership.

Countries like India , Japan and Brazil are seeding permanent membership in the SC. There must also be representation from Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean.

Also, there have been suggestions on scrapping the veto power which is an exclusive privilege enjoyed by the permanent members. It is argued that the veto power is the most undemocratic instrument that creates differences between the members of the UN. It has allowed the world powers to wield more authority and power. Abolishing the veto will be a step towards a fair and equitable representation of all the nation states.

The voting procedure and rules of the Security Council must also undergo a change. The decisions must be taken by majority of the permanent members as well as the non-permanent members. Presently, a negative vote by any of the permanent members can stall the entire proceedings.



24. What makes the role of the central Vigilance Commission (CVC) limited?                 2

Ans. Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) is an apex Indian governmental body created in 1964 to address governmental corruption, monitoring all vigilance under the central government, and advising various authorities in central government organization in planning, executing, reviewing their vigilance work.

25. Highlight the significance of a constitutional status for the union. Public service Commission. Explain any three of its advisory functions.                    5

Ans. The constitutional status is intended to ensure the Commission to function without fear or favour. This can be facilitated when its composition, role and authority, privilege of its members, method of appointment and removal of members, qualifications for appointment and ground for removal etc., are constitutionally protected.

The functions of the UPSC as described in the Constitution are:-

1) To advise the government on all matters relating to the methods of recruitment and norms to be followed in making appointments to civil services either directly or by promotion.

2) To advise on the suitability of candidates for appointment, promotion and transfer.

3) To conduct examinations for appointment to All India services.

26. Describe the role and functions of the District Collector related to development and    coordination.                 4+4=8

Ans. Development Functions:- District Collector has become a pivotal figure in the implementation of development programmes. In many states, he is also designated as the District Development Officer. He is made many responsible for both regulatory and development administration. The great influence that the collector wields in the district should be harnessed to the task of development. His development role has become a focal point after the initiation of development planning in India. Several programmes for the welfare and benefit of the down-trodden have been started by the government. Rural development programmes aimed at eradicating poverty  and improving the living standards of the poor have gained significance after 1970s.

Co-ordinator:- Formerly, the district collector used to be the coordinating agency in overall charge of every important official activity in the district. After independence, several departments of technical nature were setup. For example public health, public words, agriculture, irrigation, education and cooperation. These are headed by specialists and are not under the supervision of the collector. These have their own programmes of development which they conduct on their own without the interference of the collector. This has to some extent, weakened the collectors role as a coordinating agency. In spite of this , the entire team in a district has to work with a sense of dedication in the same manner as a soldier on the battle front. The district officer is still the commander who has to organize and coordinate the different departments and achieve the target which must be clearly laid down.


Describe the major sources of stress for the bureaucracy in India. Suggest any two measures to reduce this stress.              8

Ans. There are five major problems with bureaucracies: red tape, conflict, duplication, imperialism, and waste.

1. Red tape is the existence of complex rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done. Any large organization must have some way of ensuring that one part of the organization does not operate out of step with another.

2. Conflict exists when some agencies work at cross-purposes with other agencies. The Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service pays farmers to grow fewer crops.

3. Duplication occurs when two government agencies seem to be doing the same thing, such as when the Customs Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration both attempt to intercept illegally smuggled drugs.

4. Imperialism refers to the tendency of agencies to grow without regard to the benefits their programs confer or the costs they entail.

Waste occurs when an agency spends more than is necessary to buy some product or service.

Two measures to reduce this stress are:-

1. Eliminate some excessive bureaucracy by reducing the hierarchy of the organizational structure. An organization with a number of layers between top management and front-line employees can slow communications and the flow of information and increase the number of “hands” an issue must pass through before being resolved. The flat organization structure is less encumbered by authority, with fewer managers required to review work.

2. Encourage an increased value for customer- orientation among employees. Bureaucratization can lead to depersonalization because an employee’s job title defines and limits her authority and responsibility with set rules and procedures for every contingency. The more customer-oriented a bureaucracy becomes, the more its corporate culture evolves into one that focuses on meeting customer needs and wants and less on the specific role of the individual worker.


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